PostgreSQL中定时job执行(pgAgent)

PostgreSQL中定时job执行

业务分析

近期项目需要定期清理数据库中的多余数据,即每月1号删除指定表中一年以上的数据。
初步分析这种定时job可以使用一下两种技术实现:

  • Linux的crontab功能
  • pgadmin的pgAgent功能

为了避免数据库系统和操作系统的绑定,最后决定在数据库层面实现自动清理功能,即使用pgAgent功能

介绍

pgAgent是pgAdmin III工具中的一个插件,它在pgAdmin III v1.4版本中引用。
主要用于PostgreSQL的作业调度代理,能够在复杂的时间表上运行多步批处理shell和SQL任务。
需要注意的是,pgAgent需要一些数据库表和其他对象的支持,因此需要先安装pgAgent数据库。

环境

  • PostgreSQL:
操作系统:CentOS Linux release 7.3.1611 (Core)
数据库系统: PostgreSQL 9.5.8
IP: 192.168.230.134
port: 5432

安装

安装pgAdmin III

yum install pgadmin3_95.x86_64 

输入:

[root@localhost ~]# yum install pgadmin3_95.x86_64 
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
base                                                             | 3.6 kB  00:00:00     
epel/x86_64/metalink                                             | 6.4 kB  00:00:00     
extras                                                           | 3.4 kB  00:00:00     
pgdg95                                                           | 4.1 kB  00:00:00     
updates                                                          | 3.4 kB  00:00:00     
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * epel: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.163.com
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pgadmin3_95.x86_64 0:1.22.1-1.rhel7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: wxGTK for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_xrc-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_stc-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_html-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_core-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_aui-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8.5)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_aui-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_adv-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu_xml-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu_net-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8.5)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu-2.8.so.0(WXU_2.8)(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_xrc-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_stc-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_html-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_core-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_aui-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_gtk2u_adv-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu_xml-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu_net-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libwx_baseu-2.8.so.0()(64bit) for package: pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package wxBase.x86_64 0:2.8.12-20.el7 will be installed
---> Package wxGTK.x86_64 0:2.8.12-20.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libSDL-1.2.so.0()(64bit) for package: wxGTK-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package SDL.x86_64 0:1.2.15-14.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

========================================================================================
 Package               Arch             Version                  Repository        Size
========================================================================================
Installing:
 pgadmin3_95           x86_64           1.22.1-1.rhel7           pgdg95           3.2 M
Installing for dependencies:
 SDL                   x86_64           1.2.15-14.el7            base             204 k
 wxBase                x86_64           2.8.12-20.el7            epel             588 k
 wxGTK                 x86_64           2.8.12-20.el7            epel             2.9 M

Transaction Summary
========================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+3 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 6.9 M
Installed size: 27 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/4): SDL-1.2.15-14.el7.x86_64.rpm                              | 204 kB  00:00:00     
(2/4): wxBase-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64.rpm                           | 588 kB  00:00:00     
(3/4): wxGTK-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64.rpm                            | 2.9 MB  00:00:01     
(4/4): pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64.rpm                     | 3.2 MB  00:00:48     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                      147 kB/s | 6.9 MB  00:48     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : wxBase-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64                                          1/4 
  Installing : SDL-1.2.15-14.el7.x86_64                                             2/4 
  Installing : wxGTK-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64                                           3/4 
  Installing : pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64                                    4/4 
  Verifying  : SDL-1.2.15-14.el7.x86_64                                             1/4 
  Verifying  : wxGTK-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64                                           2/4 
  Verifying  : wxBase-2.8.12-20.el7.x86_64                                          3/4 
  Verifying  : pgadmin3_95-1.22.1-1.rhel7.x86_64                                    4/4 

Installed:
  pgadmin3_95.x86_64 0:1.22.1-1.rhel7                                                   

Dependency Installed:
  SDL.x86_64 0:1.2.15-14.el7 wxBase.x86_64 0:2.8.12-20.el7 wxGTK.x86_64 0:2.8.12-20.el7

Complete!

安装pgAgent

yum install pgagent_95

输入:

[root@localhost ~]# yum install pgagent_95
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * epel: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.163.com
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pgagent_95.x86_64 0:3.4.0-9.rhel7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

========================================================================================
 Package              Arch             Version                   Repository        Size
========================================================================================
Installing:
 pgagent_95           x86_64           3.4.0-9.rhel7             pgdg95            42 k

Transaction Summary
========================================================================================
Install  1 Package

Total download size: 42 k
Installed size: 151 k
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
pgagent_95-3.4.0-9.rhel7.x86_64.rpm                              |  42 kB  00:00:02     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : pgagent_95-3.4.0-9.rhel7.x86_64                                      1/1 
  Verifying  : pgagent_95-3.4.0-9.rhel7.x86_64                                      1/1 

Installed:
  pgagent_95.x86_64 0:3.4.0-9.rhel7                                                     

Complete!

在数据库上配置pgAgent

找到pgagent.sql和pgagent_upgrade.sql文件路径,并在需要job功能的数据库上执行
将会在数据库中创建一个pgagent模式,并创建相应的功能表和函数

psql -U postgres
postgres=# \i /usr/share/pgagent_95-3.4.0/pgagent.sql
postgres=# \i /usr/share/pgagent_95-3.4.0/pgagent_upgrade.sql
postgres=# \q

输入:

[root@localhost pgagent_95-3.4.0]# psql -U postgres
psql (9.5.9)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \i /usr/share/pgagent_95-3.4.0/pgagent.sql
BEGIN
CREATE SCHEMA
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
INSERT 0 1
INSERT 0 1
INSERT 0 1
INSERT 0 1
INSERT 0 1
CREATE TABLE
COMMENT
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
COMMENT
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
COMMENT
CREATE TABLE
CREATE INDEX
COMMENT
COMMENT
COMMENT
CREATE FUNCTION
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
CREATE TRIGGER
COMMENT
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
CREATE TRIGGER
COMMENT
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
CREATE TRIGGER
COMMENT
COMMIT
postgres=# \i /usr/share/pgagent_95-3.4.0/pgagent_upgrade.sql
CREATE FUNCTION
CREATE FUNCTION
COMMENT
psql:/usr/share/pgagent_95-3.4.0/pgagent_upgrade.sql:49: ERROR:  column "jstconnstr" of relation "pga_jobstep" already exists
ALTER TABLE
ALTER TABLE
postgres=# \q

如果数据库满足以下条件:
* PostgreSQL 版本高于9.1
* pgAgent 版本高于3.4.0

可使用简易安装模式:

[root@localhost pgagent_95-3.4.0]# psql -U postgres
psql (9.5.9)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# CREATE EXTENSION pgagent;

效果相同

启动pgAgent守护程序

语法:

pgagent_95 [options] <connect-string>
options:
-f run in the foreground (do not detach from the terminal)
-t <poll time interval in seconds (default 10)>
-r <retry period after connection abort in seconds (>=10, default 30)>
-s <log file (messages are logged to STDOUT if not specified>
-l <logging verbosity (ERROR=0, WARNING=1, DEBUG=2, default 0)>

实例:

[root@localhost pgagent_95-3.4.0]# pgagent_95 hostaddr=192.168.230.134 dbname=postgres user=postgres password=oracle

执行计划创建

使用pgadmin III工具连接目标库(可以使用其他机器远程连接目标库)

配置如下:

pgadmin配置

进入pgadmin后可看到作业状态,如下图所示:

作业图

创建作业date_delete_new

jobdemo

然后在date_delete_new作业中添加执行计划和步骤

创建计划delete_date_new

计划其实就是作业的执行时间表,可以在其中设置作业的运行时间,最小单位为min,设置方式与linux的cron控件类似

本次的业务要求是每月1号执行删除操作,顾只需设置每月一日执行即可:

新建计划:

计划1

设置日期为每月的1号

计划2

设置时间为00点00分

计划3

创建步骤delete_date_new

步骤是可以执行的SQL脚本或shell脚本,当计划条件触发时,作业的每个步骤将依次以字母数字名称顺序运行

本次的业务要求是删除表中一年以前的数据,以test表为例

新建步骤:
需要指定操作的数据库(postgres)

步骤1

在定义中写入所要执行的脚本,如:

DELETE FROM "test"."test" 
where time < CURRENT_DATE-('1 year')::INTERVAL;

步骤2

到此执行计划创建完成

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